Category Archives: Articles

Articles written by Bob Moran, mainly for the Internet.

The Difference Between Theme and Message

There are some elements to writing that can be confusing, even to experienced writers. This can include the ideas of Theme and Message. Both are difficult to define since they are ideas that can be interpreted in many ways.

A theme is sometimes defined as the moral or message of the story. This is a simple way of trying to explain a complex idea, but it can cause problems for a writer, because theme and moral are two very different things.


What is Theme?

A theme is the controlling idea or the driving concept in a story. An author uses a theme as he develops the plot, the setting, the characters, and the dialogue. Everything that characters do and say is usually determined by a theme. Conflicts and events are also controlled by the theme.

One of the themes in Romeo and Juliet is Fate. Shakespeare stated it in the Prologue, and throughout the story, no matter what the star-crossed lovers tried to do, they were destined to die in the end. The story is driven by Romeo and Juliet’s attempts to defy their Fate.


What is the Message or Moral of a Story?

The words message and moral are often used to mean what a reader or audience member learns from a story. The moral can usually be expressed in a sentence or proverb that teaches a lesson.

There are many ways to interpret a story, and sometimes, different readers may come away with different lessons. This is why in older stories, the moral was stated at the end, as in Aesop’s Fables. For example, the moral of “The Tortoise and the Hare” is usually stated as “Slow and Steady Wins the Race.”

Today, audiences are considered sophisticated enough to figure out the message on their own, and a moral is usually only added at the end of a story if the author wishes to be ironic.


Theme vs. Message

Theme and message are both ideas that are often implied without being explicitly stated. It is no wonder that they often cause confusion for both writer and audience.

Perhaps it is best to think of Theme as something an author can use from the beginning of the writing process to direct the plot and characters in his work, while Moral is what the audience takes away from the work when it is finished.


Writer’s Work

As an author, coming up with a theme for your work can be a difficult task, but it will be the driving force leading your story to its conclusion. Of course, after developing your theme, you then must create the setting, characters, and plot actions and combine them – using the theme – to make a story.

This often happens on an unconscious level, but it is one of the best reasons why an author should always write the ending of a story first. You need to know where the story is headed and why.

Groundhog Day

(Originally posted on February 2, 2008)

Several men in top hats surround the tree stump at Gobbler’s Knob. Just after sunrise, one of the tuxedo-clad men reaches into the stump and Punxsutawney Phil, Seer of Seers, Sage of Sages, Prognosticator of Prognosticators, and Weather Prophet Extraordinary, is pulled out and presented to the crowd.

The President of the Inner Circle consults with Phil. They speak in a language no one seems to understand. After some time, the President translates Phil’s predictions to the crowd. Will there be an early spring, or has Phil foreseen six more weeks of winter?

Phil is a groundhog, and this ceremony is held every February 2nd in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania. It is said that if a groundhog sees his shadow on Groundhog Day, there will be six more weeks of winter. If on the other hand, the day is overcast, and there is no shadow, Spring will come early.

In early to mid February, the days in the Northern Hemisphere become longer. Many animals are pregnant at this time of year, preparing to deliver when the warmer weather arrives. This is the time when the groundhog and other animals that hibernate begin to wake, if only for a short time to check on the climate.

The belief that groundhogs, hedgehogs, badgers and other burrowing mammals have the ability to tell if spring will come early goes back to Roman times. When Europeans came to America, they brought this belief with them. By that time, February 2nd was already known as the day that the groundhog would make his prediction.

The date is also known as Candlemas, a special day in some religions. It is also a cross quarter day, one of the days that mark the midpoint between a solstice and an equinox. Therefore, it is not very surprising that Groundhog Day was assigned to the day marking the midpoint between the beginning of Winter and the coming of Spring.

Of Purification, Hearts, Groundhogs, and Candles

This was originally written in January, 2007. It was published on and in my MySpace Blog.

A young woman waits for the two young men who are running toward her. As they approach, she pulls up the hem of her toga past the thigh. She closes her eyes and feels a rush of lustful grace as one of the boys pelts her skin with a thong made from the skin of a recently sacrificed goat.

Gratefully, she drops her gown and basks in the knowledge that she has been purified, and she hopes that someday soon, a similar young man will make use of the blessing of fertility she has just received.

That might have been a story in Rome 2000 years ago. Today, it’s just a part of the history of the month called February.

The Festival of Lupercalia was celebrated in Rome on February 15. The festival was based on the story of the founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus, two boys nursed by a wolf. Because Romans considered themselves descendants of the famous twins, they were friends with wolfs, so their goats and sheep were safe from attack.

To show their gratitude to the wolfs, the Romans would sacrifice a goat. Whips made from the goat’s skin were called Februa, or tools of purification. Two boys, representing Romulus and Remus, ran through the streets of the city hitting willing females with the whips.

On the same day, the entire Roman Empire celebrated the festival of Juno Februata or Juno the Purifier. Juno, the wife of the King of the Gods, Jupiter, was the goddess of marriage and fertility (among other things).

The coming of Spring was the inspiration for these events. Pregnant livestock and longer days were signs that warmer weather was coming. It was a time to think of changes you could make before the world renewed itself. Hmmm, seems a lot like New Year resolutions and Lent.

One of the party games played on the feast of Juno Februata involved the pairing of young men and women. The virgins would place their names in a jar, and the young men would each pull out a name. The couples were than obligated to spend the rest of the festival together. Often, the young men would wear the girls names on their arms. Because the theme of the day was fertility and the coming of Spring, the young couples would often end up… well, you get the idea.

When the Catholic Church gained power, it had to eliminate these pagan (and very sinful) festivals and replace them with its own.

The feast of the Purification of the Virgin was thus created and slated for the fourteenth (due to lunar versus solar celebrations and such). However, by Jewish law, Mary’s purification had to happen 40 days after the birth of Jesus, so it was moved to February 2nd when the Church decided to celebrate the Nativity on December 25th rather than January 6th. The Church then dedicated the day to Saint Valentine. Couples still seem to like the day.

February 2nd certainly gained some needed holiness when the feast of the Purification was assigned to it. It was already an important pagan holiday as it was the day midway between the winter solstice and the spring equinox.

Many Romans and other Europeans believed that it was on February 2nd that the hedgehog would come out of its hibernation and decide whether Spring would come early. The rodent did this by coming out of its den and looking around. If it saw its shadow and ran back into its hole, Spring would not come for another six weeks. When Europeans moved to America, there were no hedgehogs, so the groundhog accepted the honor.

While the Irish waited for the badgers and hedgehogs to tell them if Spring would arrive early, they celebrated the feast of Imbolc, dedicated to the goddess Brighid. This feast was also related to the midway point between solstice and equinox, and started at sunset on February 1st. Of course, when the Church reached Ireland, they just had to erase any sign of the pagan tradition and replaced Brighid with Saint Brigit.

It just so happens that February 2nd is also the feast of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, another Jewish ritual required 40 days after the birth of a male child. The priest at the Temple called Jesus “a light for revelation to the Gentiles.” The day was celebrated with processions and the blessing of candles. Christians called the day Candlemas.

As you celebrate the holidays of February, perhaps you will light a candle while thinking of the coming Spring. You could participate in a rite of purification. Or you could plan something really big for Valentine’s Day. Wear your heart on your sleeve and bear some flesh. Maybe someone will come along and whip you.